Agriculture & Natural Resources -Remember safety with standby generators on the farm
With all the winter weather since the beginning of the year, power outages can be a huge consequence. While an inconvenience to many, it is crucial on many farms. Many small animals require heaters; certain agricultural products require controlled environments; and feed/water sources also might also require electricity to operate. Generators are an important feature on most farms but can be dangerous if used improperly. Here are some tips on using large standby generators from Dr. Doug Overhults, UK Ag Engineer.
Standby generators provide emergency electrical power during disruptions caused by winter storms and other disasters. However, there needs to be some special precautions to ensure safe, efficient operation of these generators.
Purchase a generator that will supply more than what is needed so a fuse isn’t blown or damage the equipment that will be attached to the generator. Power information can be found on the labels of appliances, lighting and other equipment. The wattage on a light bulb indicates the amount of power it needs.
The main hazards of using a generator are carbon monoxide poisoning, electric shock, and fire. There are some precautions to take to make sure a mishap doesn’t occur.
Use a double-throw type transfer switch if connecting a standby generator directly to an existing electrical wiring system to provide power for a home, farm or small business. A double-throw switch allows the switch to be put into two different positions.
One position feeds normal power from the utility line to the load, such as the household or building circuit, just like the power flows under normal circumstances. In the other position, it disconnects the utility line and feeds power from the standby generator to the household or building circuit.
Remember, anytime a standby generator is wired or directly connected into a household or building wiring system, a transfer switch must be used for the connection.
A double-throw type transfer switch is required by the National Electric Code and by electric utility companies for two very good reasons.
First, it prevents power backflow from the standby generator through the utility power line. This prevents possible electrocution of utility linemen working to restore service to the power lines. Second, it prevents damage to the standby generator when electrical service is restored; otherwise, the generator could be damaged extensively when power is re-established.
There is no need to use a double-throw type transfer switch if plugging individual appliances like a refrigerator, freezer, sump pump or power tools directly into a small portable generator.
These are some more safety considerations to remember when using standby generators:
Ground the generator using No. 6 copper wire and an 8-foot ground rod that is properly bonded to the electrical grounding system.
To avoid the possibility of carbon monoxide poisoning, never operate a standby generator in a basement or other enclosed area or near windows or doors that may lead into living spaces. Use battery-operated carbon monoxide detectors, and if you start to feel sick, dizzy or weak while using a generator, get fresh air right away.
Use extreme caution when operating the generator in wet conditions.
Use only approved containers to store fuel. Never refill fuel when the generator is running or while the engine is hot; always allow ample time for it to cool down first.
Do not shut off the generator under load.
For more information on transfer switches and other necessary measures for safe installation and use of standby generators, contact your local electric utility company or a qualified electrician. The Woodford County Cooperative Extension Service also has information on safety practices around the home, farm and business.