Health aDepartment Notes
Cholesterol myths and facts What do your cholesterol numbers mean? Can the foods you eat change your cholesterol levels? Learn the difference between cholesterol myth and fact. Then commit to getting your cholesterol checked this year so you know your numbers and your risk for heart disease and stroke. Myth: All cholesterol is bad for you. Fact: Some types of cholesterol are essential for good health. Your body needs cholesterol to perform important jobs, such as making hormones and building cells. Cholesterol travels through the blood on proteins called lipoproteins. Two types of lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout the body: • LDL (low-density lipoprotein), sometimes called “bad” cholesterol, makes up most of your body’s cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol raise your risk for heart disease and stroke. • HDL (high-density lipoprotein), or “good” cholesterol carries cholesterol back to the liver. The liver then flushes it from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol can lower your risk for heart disease and stroke. When your body has too much LDL cholesterol, it can build up in the walls of your blood vessels. This buildup is called plaque. As your blood vessels build up plaque over time, the insides of the vessels narrow. This narrowing can restrict and eventually block blood flow to and from your heart and other organs. When blood flow to the heart is blocked, it can cause angina (chest pain) or a heart attack. Myth: I would be able to feel it if I had high cholesterol. Fact: High cholesterol usually has no signs or symptoms. You may not know you have unhealthy cholesterol levels until it is too late - when you have a heart attack or stroke. That’s why it’s so important to get your cholesterol levels checked at least every four to six years. Myth: Eating foods with a lot of cholesterol will not make my cholesterol levels go up. Fact: It can be complicated. We know that foods with a lot of cholesterol usually also have a lot of saturated fat. Saturated fats can make your cholesterol numbers higher, so it’s best to choose foods that are lower in saturated fats. Foods made from animals, including red meat, butter, and cheese, have a lot of saturated fats. Instead, aim to eat foods with plenty of fiber, such as oatmeal and beans, and healthy unsaturated fats, such as avocados, olive oil and nuts. Myth: I can’t do anything to change my cholesterol levels. Fact: You can do many things to improve your cholesterol levels and keep them in a healthy range. • Get tested every four to six years (unless told otherwise by your doctor). • Make healthy food choices. Limit foods high in saturated fats. Choose foods naturally high in fiber and unsaturated fats. • Be active every day. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends that adults get 150 to 300 minutes of moderate physical activity each week. • Don’t smoke or use tobacco products. Smoking damages your blood vessels, speeds up the hardening of the arteries and greatly increases your risk for heart disease. If you don’t smoke, don’t start. If you do smoke, quitting will lower your risk for heart disease. •Talk with your health care provider about ways to manage your cholesterol, and if any medicines are given to you to manage your cholesterol, take them as they are prescribed. Know your family history. If your parents or other immediate family members have high cholesterol, you probably should be tested more often.